Every day, employees make decisions about whether or not to go the extra mile in ways that contribute to company's success.

Therefore, a critical task for leaders is to motivate employees to engage in these extra-role behaviors or “citizenship behaviors.” The idea of citizenship is based on the concept of job crafting, in which people redesign their work by altering aspects of the job itself, the people with whom they work, and their mindset about their jobs in ways that play to their strengths, motives, and passions.

Past formal job descriptions, leaders can encourage employees to more thoughtfully and proactively craft their citizenship behavior in ways that their extra-role contributions lead to more meaning and fulfillment while, at the same time, enhancing their firm’s performance.


Inspired by: Harvard Business Review - How to Motivate Employees to Go Beyond Their Jobs, by Mark C. Bolino and Anthony C. Klotz